? Philippe Pinel – Definition and Explanations


Philip Pinel
Birth April 20, 1745
Jonquieres, Tarn (France)
Death October 25, 1826
Paris (Paris is a French city, the capital of France and the capital of the region…) (France)
Nationality French language
Areas an alien

Philip Pinel (April 20, 1745, Jonquières (Tarn) – October 25, 1826, Paris) — French alien. He advocated the abolition of the chains of the mentally ill and more generally the humanization of their treatment. Especially workedhospital (A hospital is a place designed to care for people with …) Bicetre. We owe him the first classification of mental illnesses. He had a great influence psychiatry (Psychiatry is a medical specialty that deals with mental illness or…) and the treatment of the insane Europe (Europe is a land area that…) and in the United States. After the French Revolution, Dr. Pinel shatters their view by affirming that the insane (or “mad”) can be understood and cared for. Gets advice moral treatment awaits our modern psychotherapies


He was the son of a poor surgeon, they gave him a ride high school (A quorum may designate a group of like-minded people…) Lavaur Doctrines among the Orators (Tarn). Imbued with Latin and religion, he took minor orders in a minor seminary and then taught theology. He left the priesthood and went to Toulouse, where he conducted scientific research. mathematics (Mathematics is an abstract field of knowledge built using…) and medicine (Medicine (Latin medicus, “healer”) science and…).

He wrote his work in 1773 thesis (Thesis (translated from Greek thesis, “the act of posing”) …) After graduating from medical school in Toulouse, where he could observe the lunatics chained to La Grave hospital, he continued his studies in Montpellier. After arriving in Paris in 1778, a time (Time, by man… such as private tutoring in mathematics and translation of medical texts Practical Medical Institutions Cullen and Medical works From Baglivi. In 1784 he followed two month (A month (lat. mensis “month”, formerly from plural “menstruation”) is a period of time…) lessons animal magnetism (Animal magnetism, also called mesmerism, ancient…) of pupil (We call disciple (Latin disciple, disciple) one who follows the teachings of…) Mesmer, Charles Deslon, the doctor (A doctor is a medical worker who is a doctor…) Staff of Comte d’Artois. For the first time, he took part in the revolutionary movement of 1789 and left with the arrival of the Terror. Then he gets a job home (A house is a medium-sized building intended for a family to live in,…) of health (Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and no…) Dr. in Charonne. Belhomme, where Anne-Catherine met Cabanis, a regular at Helvetius’ salon.

Pinel liberates the insane in Bicêtre in 1793.
Council (Table can have several meanings depending on the context in which it is used 🙂 Exhibited in the reception hall by Charles-Louis MulletNational Academy of Medicine (National Academy of Medicine, historically in 1731…) in Paris.

In 1795, Pinel delivered the insane to the Salpetriere.
Painting by Tony Robert-Fleury.

In 1793, on August 25, during the insurrectionary Commune, he was appointed doctor of the Bicêtre lunatics by decree at the suggestion of Jacques-Guillaume Thouret and Cabanis. He carefully follows the experiments of Jean-Baptiste Poussin, who developed the “moral treatment” of the insane, taking into account the still intact part of their minds. It was Poussin man (A male is an adult male individual of a species called Modern Man (Homo…).) great kindness to the sick, bestowed power (The word force can designate a mechanical force on things, but also figuratively …) a discerning and attentive mind; applied its suppression in practiceuse it (Usage is the act of using something.) Chains of Bicêtre (medico-philosophical treatise on mental alienation or La mania (Mania (Ancient Greek μανία / maníā “madness,…)” (1801), p. 201).

In 1795, Pinel was appointed chief physician of the Salpetriere, where, with the help of Poussin, he introduced the reforms at Bicêtre. Then he began reforms in the organization of the hospital.

In 1798, he a Philosophical nosographywhich is the classification of mental illnesses, then called vesanies. Based on the principle of classification of the natural sciences, which many generations of students will benefit from, this nosography is especially inspired by the works of Cullen and Francois Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix, the author of the classic work. Nosology Methodology here he learned various follies. Pinel thus appears as one of the founders of nosology after Boissier de Sauvages.

In 1801, he was a A medico-philosophical treatise on mental alienation. According to the damaged organs, this classification distinguishes:

  • simple melancholic (The term melancholia encompasses several meanings related to its history…) (partial delirium)
  • mania (generalized delirium)
  • the dementia (Dementia (from Latin demens) is an acquired decline in cognitive abilities…) (generalized intellectual disability)
  • idiom (total elimination of conceptual functions)

Statue of Pinel in front of the Salpetriere

For Pinel, mental disorders stem from physiological damage caused by emotions. A madman is a subject and must be considered the past (The past is above all a concept related to time: it consists of all…) and difficulties in its construction a therapeutic (Therapeutics (from the Greek word therapist, to treat) is a part of medicine that…).

elected memberAcademy of Sciences (The Academy of Sciences is a learned society whose role is to promote research…) In 1803. In 1820, Jean-Étienne Esquirol succeeded him at Salpêtrière.

Pinel suppressed the bleeding and useless drugs that weakened the insane. He believed that the insane could be cured by encouraging words, and that in cases of delirium, skillful reasoning should reduce the dominant idea.

Then it remains legitimate to see the father of future psychiatric psychiatry. He was a supporter of moral behavior. According to him, the doctor should understand this logic (Logic (from Greek logikê, logos (λόγος),…) of delirium (Delirium is a global concern in psychopathology, neurology and psychiatry,…) his sick (In medicine, the term patient usually refers to a person receiving…)then trust the reason left at home everything (The whole, understood as the whole of what exists, is often interpreted as the world or…) using it, he got away from slowly forcing him to recognize his mistakes dialogue (Dialogue is communication between two or more people or groups. It…) also, horse need (Needs are at the level of interaction between the individual and the environment. This…), from his authority. we talked a lot about meaning (SENS (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence) is a scientific project…) moral treatment. Some Michel Foucault (Paul Michel Foucault was born on October 15, 1926 in Poitiers and…) in particular, P. Pinel replaces only the limiter physical (Physics (from Greek φυσις, nature) etymologically…) with spiritual conditioning. One exception is the other, which sees the psychiatric patient surrendering himself to the power of doctors alone to judge him. healing (Healing is a biological process that the body’s cells undergo…) in their shelters. For others, they reintegrated the insane into society, turning them into treatable patients. referred to (City (Latin civitas) is an ancient word for….)Makes it possible to dialogue with Pinel madness (Insanity, popularly speaking, refers to the state of a person whose speech and/or…), of course incomplete, even fictitious, but at the same time a dialogue. Often the truth is probably somewhere in the middle.

The Empire gave Pinel great rewards, which the Restoration later took back from him. The ideas adopted by Esquirol gave rise to the 1838 Psychiatry Rules, which remained in force until the 1990s.

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