🔎 Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire – Definition and Explanations


Etienne Geoffroy Saint-HilaireHe was born on April 15, 1772 in Etampes and died on June 19, 1844 in Paris.

His education and beginnings

His father, Jean Gérard Geoffroy, is a lawyer in parliament Paris (Paris is a French city, the capital of France and the capital of the region…) and the young Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire was primarily destined for an ecclesiastical career. student high school (A quorum may designate a group of like-minded people…) d’Étampes, he read College of Navarre (The College of Navarre was founded in Paris in 1304 thanks to Jeanne…) in Paris. There is like a teacherNatural History (The process of observation and systematic description of nature… begins from that moment)., Mathurin Jacques Brisson. He addressed many scholars of his time: René Just Hauy (Father René Just Hauy was born on February 28, 1743…), Antoine Lavoisier (Antoine Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier, was born in Paris on August 26, 1743 and…) and Claude Louis Bertolet (Claude Louis Berthollet (born in Taloire, Duchy of Savoy, then State…). He also follows the courses of Louis Jean-Marie Daubenton French high school (The Collège de France is located at No. 11 Marcelin-Berthelot in the Latin Quarter…) and D’Antoine-Francois Fourcroy (Antoine François Fourcroy or de Fourcroy was born in Paris on June 15, 1755 and…) In the royal garden.

In March 1793, thanks to the intervention of Louis Jean-Marie Daubenton, Bernardin de Saint Pierre (The term Saint-pierre is French for three…, offered him the position of sub-guard and assistant demonstrator in the cabinet of natural history, vacant by the resignation of Bernard Lacepède. After the law of June 1793, Geoffroy became one of the twelve professors of the new university. Museum (Exhibition hall of the Provincial Museum in Toronto (Ontario, Canada) (1908) …) National Institute of Natural History and head of the department zoology (Zoology (Greek ζoον, zoon, animal and…). The same year (A year is a unit of time that represents the time between two occurrences of a related event…)deals with the constitution animal husbandry (Animal husbandry is a historical enterprise for keeping and exhibiting…) The museum.

In 1794, he a correspondence (Correspondence is usually an exchange of mail extending over a long period of time. The…) with George Cuvier (Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric Cuvier, known as Georges Cuvier (he also bore the nicknames …). Small time (Time, by man… After Cuvier was hired as an assistant at the Museum of Natural History, Geoffroy took him into his home home (A house is a medium-sized building intended for a family to live in,…). They will sign together (In set theory, a set intuitively defines a collection…) several natural history memoirs, one of which presents a classification of mammals based on the idea of ​​subordination of characters that is the basis of Cuvier’s system of classification.

This is stated in his articleHistory of the lemurs or monkeys of MadagascarIt was written in 1795 that Geoffroy first expressed his views on the unity of the plan.organization (It is an organization) living beings, a concept that would be constantly expressed in his later works.

He returned to Paris and continued his research

In 1804 he married Pauline Briere (La Brière or Grande Brière (Ar Briwer in Breton) is a marsh geographically north of…) Mondetur’s son, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, gives him for the future naturalist (The word naturalist refers to the field of natural sciences. Adjective… him too.

elected memberAcademy of Sciences (The Academy of Sciences is a learned society whose role is to promote research…) In September 1807. In March of the following year, Napoleon, who had already awarded him the Cross of the Legion of Honor, selected him to visit Portuguese museums in order to acquire animal collections from Brazil. Facing fierce resistance from the British, he managed to hold them back.

In 1809, the year he returned to France, he became professor of zoology at the Faculty of Sciences in Paris and devoted himself entirely to its study.anatomy (Anatomy (from the Greek name ἀνατομία…).

In March 1815 he asked to examine “its distinctive features” on the Hottentot Venus. gender (In zoological nomenclature, race is a lower taxonomic rank than species…) it is interesting”. After being exposed to the public at fairs, it is exposed to the eyes of scientists and artists. object (In general, the word object (from Latin objectum, 1361) refers to an entity defined by …) education. A report that appeared shortly after compared his face to an orangutan. Her breasts are those of female mandrill monkeys.

In 1818, he published the first part of his famous work Anatomical philosophythe the second (The second is the feminine of the second adjective immediately following the first, or which…) It will be published in 1822 Natural history of mammalsIn 1819, he said that bodies always maintain the same relationship between themselves, but organ (An organ is a collection of tissues that help carry out a function…) new and when one organ develops it is done to the detriment of another.

In 1827, he was commissioned to accompany him from Marseilles to Paris giraffe (The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a type of artiodactyl hoofed mammal…) Charles suggested X by the Pasha of Egypt.

In 1830, Geoffroy tried to apply his method to invertebrates. Geoffroy believes that all animals are composed of the same elements, a number (The concept of number in linguistics is considered in the article “Number…”) are equal, although they differ in size and shape, most of them remain in a fixed order.

thoughts aboutevolution Similar to Lamarck’s transformism, it brings him into conflict with Cuvier, who was decidedly fixative.Academy (Academy is a recognized assembly of men of letters, scientists and/or artists…) Sciences. One of their most famous clashes is now called the Caen Crocodile Controversy.

In the debate between Saint-Hilaire and Georges Cuvier on compositional unity organic (Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the description and study of a large element…)Honoré de Balzac took the side of Saint-Hilaire: “It would be a mistake to believe that the great quarrel between Cuvier and Joffroy Saint-Hilaire in recent times was based on innovation. scientist (A scientist dedicated to the study of a science or sciences and…) […]. Announcing and supporting this system is also in line with our ideas Strong (The word power is used in a certain sense in several areas 🙂 God, Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire, this Cuvier winner will be an eternal honor point (graphic) from above Science (Science (Latin scientia, “knowledge”) according to the dictionary…), and its triumph was hailed by the last article written by the great Goethe. “. He will also dedicate it to him Goriot.

To find arguments, Saint-Hilaire studies teratology (or the study of anomalies of embryonic development).

Recognizes an action slow (Lente is a river in Tuscany.) but the undisputed environment over the evolution of species that takes a very long time.

It defines the notion of homology that throws a bridge (A bridge is a construction that makes it possible to cross a depression or an obstacle (a course…) between embryology andcomparative anatomy (Comparative anatomy is a branch of anatomy. It was founded by Edward…).

In July 1840, Geoffroy became blind and suffered quite a bit month (A month (Lat. mensis from the word “month”, formerly from the word “menstruation” in the plural) is a period of time…) later an attack that paralyzed him. Weakened, he had to resign his chair at the Museum in 1841, succeeded by his son Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1805-1861).

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