🔎 Synagogue of Constance (1883-1938)

Introduction

Synagogue in the 1930s

stability (Alm. Konstanz) — a landlocked city in southern Germany, on the southern shore of Lake Constance (Bodensee) in Switzerland. Konstanz currently has a population of 81,200.

The synagogue was built in 1883 absolutely (Completion or fully automatic, or anglicism completion or…) It was destroyed by the Nazis in 1938.

The Jewish community of Konstanz before the advent of National Socialism

In the Middle Ages, many Jewish families lived in Constance despite constant persecution. After an epidemic plague (Plague (Latin pestis, infectious disease) is a multifaceted disease that…) the destroyer city (A city is an urban unit (“human settlement”…)On January 4, 1349, 330 Jews were burned in the meadow called Brühl, located in front of the city walls.

In 1537, the Jews were expelled from the city and permanently forbidden to stay in Constance. Only after 1847 did the Jews have the right to settle in the city again. But after the introduction of the emancipation law of October 15, 1862, which granted Jews complete freedom of trade and industry in all Baden municipalities life (Life is a given name 🙂 Jewish life receives a new impetus in Constance.

In 1863, a new Jewish community was established, recognized by the Baden State Ministry in 1866. There were already 251 members in 1875, 565 in 1900 (about 2.5% of the city’s total population), 537 in 1925, and another 488 members. People in 1932.

Among them are many industrialists, merchants or representatives of liberal professions, who fully participate in the industrial and economic development of the city. Most Jewish houses and shops are grouped together around (Autour is the name given by French bird nomenclature (update)…) Marktstätte, of the Street (A street is a circulation space that serves residences and places in the city…) Rosgarten, from the street station (A station is usually a place where trains stop. A station includes various facilities that…) (Bahnhofstrasse) and Bodan Square. Constance being an important tourist center and border town, the local Nazis relatively moderated their anti-Jewish activities and Jewish economic life was primarily time (Time, by man… It is less affected than other cities in Germany. But this is temporary and the persecution will soon increase.

National Socialist era

In 1938, Jewish children were expelled from public schools, and the community had to open an elementary school to accommodate them. Many Jews are moving their jobs and homes elsewhere border (A border is an imaginary line separating two areas, especially two…) The Swiss mainly in Kreuzlingen to avoid confiscation of their property.

On October 28, 1938, Jews from Poland took refuge in Konstanz. to pass (The Passer breed was created by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques…) Deported to Poland in Switzerland. after the night crystal (Crystal is a general term for a regularly shaped solid, but…)Jews were routinely arrested by the Gestapo and tortured before being sent to the Dachau concentration camp.

During the Nazi era, many Jews settled in Konstanz with the aim of immigrating to Switzerland: 338 Jews managed to emigrate to the USA, France and Switzerland, and 251 people managed to find refuge in other German cities. .

On October 20, 1940, 108 Jewish residents were arrested and deported to the Kurs concentration camp in France, while many more were transferred to Auschwitz or Sobibor.

All 44 Jews of the Singen community fled in 1939.

Synagogue

Its construction

From 1864, religious services were regularly held in a small oratory on the old site hotel (A hotel is an enterprise offering paid accommodation service,…) des Faucons, then in a room in the Rosgarten museum, and from 1873 in a room on the first floor of the theater accessible by the Ruelle du Lycée.

Since 1872, the community has been trying to build a synagogue. In 1873 he boughthospital (A hospital is a place designed to care for people with …) Municipal land at 19 rue Sigismund. You can get started with the help of multiple donations and a very large loan repayable over 40 years.

Synagogue Dr. It is built according to Holtzmann plans. architect (An architect is a construction professional whose function is to design and direct…) Chief of the city of Constance. On September 7, 1883, the last stone was laid, and on September 28, 1883, the synagogue was inaugurated during a great celebration attended by numerous state and municipal representatives, as well as community leaders and neighboring Jews. During this holiday, the law is stamped on the tablesArk (An arch is a natural or built element that assumes a geometric shape close to an arch…) holy The liturgical songs are interpreted by the new cantor Alessandro Geismar.

Description

Historian and writer Dr. Erich Bloch, author History of the Jews of Constance XIXe and XXe century describes the synagogue as follows:

“The synagogue is entirely Romanesque, with some elements of the Renaissance. The main portal is flanked on both sides by two lower structures in the form of a tower. the dome ().

The synagogue is set back from the street and protected by a net iron (Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It…) to beat. It is surrounded by grass, bushes and trees on the sides and back. You enter the synagogue through three doors.

Inside the large hall on each side a corridor (In religious architecture, the corridor is a lower collateral, from…). Opposite the entrance is a three-tiered prayer room and pulpitthe apse (The apse is a volume that expands the bottom of the monument, in the form of a semi-cylinder mounted on it…) Above the Holy Arch and choir, the organ.

Above, the women’s gallery surrounds the synagogue on both sides and above the entrance.

Architect Holzman designed the interior decorations by artist Brasch from Karlsruhe. The windows are decorated with decorative paintings on glass, which is a light (Light is a collection of visible electromagnetic waves…) weakened by giving space a atmosphere (The word atmosphere can have several meanings 🙂 from meditation. The synagogue forms the artistic support of the synagoguethe church (Could be a church 🙂 neighbor Augustine”.

As the Jewish Review of 1893 indicated Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentumsservices are celebrated in Constance according to the Mannheim rite:

“The services are simple but solemn, and give a splendid example of what can be accomplished with little means. The clerk, Mr. Geismar, is an earnest and earnest preacher. The mixed choir sings much. The silence in the synagogue is exemplary.”.

In 1931, the community completely modernized the synagogue and installed a new organ.

The fire of 1936

In the afternoon 1er In November 1936, an arson attack severely damaged the synagogue. By the time firefighters arrived, the holy chest, the organ and four chest benches were destroyed, where prayer shawls and scriptures were stored. The plaster of partitions and many benches were damaged. Six of the seven Torah scrolls placed on the Holy Ark were burned and buried in a Jewish cemetery, according to Jewish tradition.

Destroyed in 1938

On the night of November 9-10, 1938, during the Kristallnacht pogroms, the synagogue was set on fire by an SS Germania intervention group from Radolfzell. Firefighters are forbidden to put out the fire and are only called to protect the surrounding buildings and especially the Catholic church next door. On the contrary, all the windows of the synagogue are open to create an appealweather (Air is a mixture of gases that make up the Earth’s atmosphere. Odorless and…) and activate it fire (Fire is the production of flame by an exothermic chemical reaction of oxidation…). The synagogue is not very fast field (Field corresponds to the definition of defined space 🙂 smoking ruins.

The following day, visits by the Nazi authorities were arranged propaganda (Propaganda refers to the communication strategy used by a political power (or party)…) in front of the synagogue ruined (a ruin is the rest of a building that has been damaged by time or more decay…) for school lessons.

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