? Complementary System – Definition and Explanations
the complementary system A group of 35 known serum proteins, 12 of which are directly involved in various pathways and others have regulatory functions, these proteins work with antibodies to eliminate pathogenic cells. Complement is a complex biochemical cascade immune system (The body’s immune system is a coordinated set of elements…). not specific for a antigen (An antigen is a natural or synthetic macromolecule recognized by…) and is immediately activated in the presence of a pathogen (The term pathogen (from the Greek παθογ?νεια!…), therefore considered part of innate immunity. On the other hand, antibodies activate certain complement proteins, so complement activity is also part of acquired immunity. Complement stimulates inflammation and opsonization, facilitates phagocytosis of antigens, and directly lyses certain cells. Because it is a strong inflammatory agent activity (The term activity can refer to a profession.) is strictly regulated.
There are three biochemical pathways that activate the complement system: classic route completing road alternates (When the organs of a plant are placed separately, they replace each other and…) completes and lectin pathway connector (A binder is a liquid product that collects solid particles as a powder…) mannans.
At the end of the 19th century century (A century is now a period of one hundred years. The word comes from the Latin word saeculum, i, which…).was found to have serum blood (Blood is a fluid connective tissue composed of free cell populations, including…) contained a “factor” or “principle” capable of killing bacteria (Bacteria (Bacteria) are prokaryotic single-celled living organisms, characterized by…). In 1895 Jules Bordet (Jules Jean-Baptiste Vincent Bordet (Soignies, June 13, 1870 – in Brussels…)young scientist (A scientist dedicated to the study of a science or sciences and…) Belgium at the Institut Pasteur Paris (Paris is a French city, the capital of France and the capital of the region…)demonstrated that this element can be decomposed into two components: thermostable and thermolabile.
The heat-labile component was found to confer immunity against specific microorganisms, while the heat-labile component was responsible for the non-specific activity conferred by all sera. This thermolabile component is what we now call “Complementary”.
Introduced by the term “complementary”. Paul Ehrlich (Paul Ehrlich was born on March 14, 1854 in Strzelin (Silesia, present-day Poland) and…) In the late 1890s, a large part of it theory (The word theory comes from the Greek word theorein and means “to think, observe,…” on the immune system. According to this theory, the immune system consists of cells with specific receptors surface (Surface generally refers to the surface layer of an object. The term a…) recognize antigens. After immunization with an antigen, many of these receptors are formed and they prevent these cells from circulating in the blood.
These receptors, now called “Antibodies”, were named “Amboreceptors” by Ehrlich to emphasize their dual binding capacity: They recognize and bind to a specific antigen, but they can also recognize and bind to heat-stable ones. antimicrobial component of serum. Ehrlich called this heat-resistant component “complementary” because it is an element present in the blood that “complements” the cells of the immune system.
Ehrlich believed that each antigen-specific “amboceptor” had its own complement, while Bordet believed that there was only one type of complement. The controversy was resolved in the early 20th century when it was realized that complement could act. combination (Could be a combination 🙂 it can also act with specific antibodies or by its own non-specific pathway.
Activation (Activation may refer to 🙂
The classical pathway is activated by the antigen-antibody complex. Only IgG1, IgG3, IgM and weakly IgG2 are able to control the cascade of events. Binding of two or more IgG immunoglobulins or one molecule (A molecule is an electrically neutral chemical compound consisting of at least two atoms, which…) pentameric IgM, on the surface of a microorganism (Microorganism (from Greek μικρος, mikros,…), allowing their Fc region to bind the first component of the classical pathway: C1. C1 is a large complex, consisting of three subcomponents: C1q, C1r and C1s. When C1q binds the antigen-antibody complex, it activates C1r, which becomes proteolytic and cleaves C1s to deactivate the proteolysis cascade. It should be noted that C1q consists of 6 identical units each. a globular head and a collagen-like tail that fixate the antibody.
These are nice (Named in honor of inventor Alexander Graham Bell, bel is the union of …) and multiple globular heads that will interact with Fc fragments of antigen-binding immunoglobulins. Activated C1 then cleaves C4 into C4a (which enters the blood) and C4b, which binds to the membrane of the cell to be cleaved. Activated C1 also cleaves C2, and it is C2a that will combine with C4b in the cell membrane to be cleaved. The C4b2a complex formed in this way is called C3-convertase its role is to split C3 into C3a (which enters the blood) and C3b. The latter binds to the membrane of the cell to be degraded and forms the C4b2a3b complex: this is the C5 convertase. Each cleavage (Flexibility is the ability of certain minerals to break along flat surfaces…) releases a small fragment: C4a, C2b and C3a, which affect inflammatory cells.
Regulation (The term regulation refers specifically to a technical discipline, which is…)
This is done by the C1 esterase inhibitor, C1 Inh and protein (A protein is a biological macromolecule consisting of one or more…) binding C4, C4bpG. In reality, complementary activity derives from a suspension (The act of suspending particles, suspension in chemistry defines a dispersion …) Inhibitory activity of C1 Inh. C1 Inh deficiency is responsible for a disease (A disease is a change in the functions or health of a living organism, animal…)hereditary angioedema.