🔎 Maurice-Lemaire Tunnel – Definition and Explanations

Introduction

Maurice Lemaire tunnel

friendly Two-way road tunnel
operator APRR
Route program RN 59
Transition Massive (Can be used as a mass word 🙂 Vosges
Type of transport (A mode of transport or vehicle or transport system is a form of…) Light vehicles and weight (Weight is the force of gravity, derived from gravity and inertia, exerted by …) except heavy transportation (Transportation is the act of moving something or someone from one place to another, most often…) of Hazardous Material (Hazardous materials are materials or objects that pose a risk to…)
country (Country comes from the Latin pagus, which designates a territorial and tribal division…) Vosges, Haut-Rhin
Length (The length of an object is the distance between its two farthest ends…) from tunnel (A tunnel is an underground gallery providing access to a means of communication (…) 6872 meters
Number (The concept of number in linguistics is considered in the article “Number…”) from pipes 2
Number of strips per tube 2
opening for traffic (Traffic (Anglicism: traffic) is the movement of motor vehicles…) February 7, 1976

the Maurice Lemaire tunnelcommonly called Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines tunnel, 6872 meters long, allows you to cross the Vosges mountains in the middle. It is the longest road tunnel located entirely on it territory (The concept of territory is becoming more and more important in geography and especially…) The French, however, was pierced for the first time railway (A railway is a controlled transportation system used to transport people and…). It owes its current name Maurice Lemaire (Maurice Lemaire – French politician, on May 25, 1895 in Gerbépal (Vosges),…)former CEO SNCF (The French National Railway Company (SNCF) is one of the main companies…)He was a Vosges deputy from 1951 to 1978 and several times a minister during the Fourth Republic, working to sell the SNCF to local authorities.

Railway tunnel

The first projects date back to 1866, shortly after the arrival of the tower iron (Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It…) in the upper Vosges valleys, but the Franco-German War of 1870 and the subsequent annexation of Alsace-Lorraine prevented any development.

Charles Regnauld, deputy director of the Chemins de Fer d’Alsace-Lorraine, drew up the plans for the railway tunnel and supervised the works.

The tunnel was opened to rail traffic on August 8, 1937 to connect the stations of Lesseux-Frapelle in the Vosges and Sainte-Croix-aux-Mines in the Haut-Rhin. Its entrance to the Vosges is located in the territory of the municipality of Lusse. Although the railway in question was planned to be single track, the tunnel was bored to the “double track” gauge often found in very long structures to improve ventilation. This feature will also be extremely useful for later conversion of the structure into a road tunnel.

The Nancy – Saint-Dié – Sélestat – Colmar – Freiburg-en-Brisgau railway line was opened with a grand ceremonial opening by the President of the Republic, Albert Lebrun. Colmar<->Watch out for the Nancy express train crossing correspondence (Correspondence is usually an exchange of mail extending over a long period of time. The…) Strasbourg fast trains<->Paris (Paris is a French city, the capital of France and the capital of the region…).

Between March and September 1944, as part of the SS reorganization of the Nazi war industry, the tunnel housed a crankcase factory.plane (According to the official definition of the International Civil Aviation Organization, an airplane…) employees were deported. A camp was set up by the prisoners themselves in front of the eastern entrance to the tunnel. This commando, dependent on the Struthof concentration camp, was evacuated to Dachau in September 1944 due to the advance of American troops.

The railway line was closed on 2 June 1973 and the tunnel was sold to the local authorities, allowing the SNCF to operate well financially.

The FERLOR association established in Nancy tried to mobilize elected officials and the media (We call media non-personal means of disseminating information (press, radio, etc.) Against this removal of the Nancy-Colmar railway line. Despite some favorable reviews, including an article The worldhe could not do anything against a decision made by local deputy Maurice Lemaire, a polytechnic, former head of the SNCF and an apostle of road transport.

Road tunnel

Underneath pressure (Pressure is a basic physical concept. You can think of it as a force expressed…) The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines tunnel exploration company was founded in 1966 by a merger of Paris Equipment services and the general council of the Vosges under the chairmanship of Maurice Lemaire. was seen (Sight is the sense that allows us to observe and analyze the environment through perception and…) railway operation of the structure. It was converted into a mixed economy company in 1971 in order to implement the necessary changes with the formula approved by the State Council on April 23, 1973. It was planned as a combined railway and car tunnel, but the road was opened to traffic only on February 7, 1976. From 1981 to December 31, 2022, the operation of the road was assigned to APRR.

Towards the entrance of the tunnel, on the Vosges side (2008)

With an average of 3,400 vehicles per year day (A day or day is the interval between sunrise and sunset; it…) 40% of this tunnel is heavy vehicles actor (An actor is an artist who embodies an image in a film, play,…) economic basis for transvosgiens exchanges. Logs, hydrocarbons, and other hazardous materials are prohibited there and pass through passages.

The disaster (A disaster is a sudden event of natural or human origin, usually…) It led to a review of the safety of the Mont-Blanc tunnel. First of all time (Time, by man…, since April 19, 2004, all vehicles were banned in order to ensure the safety of vehicles carrying heavy loads weighing 3.5 tons. It was about digging a second 6-meter tunnel Diameter (In a circle or sphere, a diameter is a line segment through the center…) now serves as an escape route. On the other hand, in the old tunnel, as well as at the exit to the runway, counter zones are regularly dug. The works continued until October 2008. The double increase would cost 300 million euros. International traffic is diverted away from the Vosges Mountains on the A4 north (North is the cardinal point against south.) and A 36 horse south (South is the cardinal point against north.). After four years of study and five years of work, the Maurice-Lemaire tunnel has since been open to traffic again. 1er After mobilization of local elected officials including October 2008 François Tacquard.

  1. The author of the book Our destiny then oil (Oil is a carbonated liquid rock or mineral oil. Exploitation…)(1957), Hatchet (Paris)
  2. See speeches by Maurice Lemaire (November 4, 1968, November 12, 1968, and November 13, 1968). project (A project is an irreversible commitment of uncertain outcome, it cannot be repeated…) 1969 Finance Act [1].

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